In this review paper, we discuss how various expressions of performance monitoring (decision confidence; error detection; changes of mind) and adaptive behavior (information seeking; next-trial adjustments ) can be explained in terms of the computational process of post-decisional evidence accumulation. Moreover, we discuss evidence showing that the error positivity reflects a neural signature of precisely this process.
As shown in the Figure below, by imposing different (second-order) boundaries on a post-decisional evidence signal, the model can capture these different expressions of performance monitoring. Moreover, predicted signatures of this model have been observed in the Pe component.
Moreover, the morphology and functional characteristics of the Pe closely resemble predictions of this model, as shown below:
Apart from from integrating a variety of findings within a single framework, in our review we discuss several open issues and direction for future inquiry, such as potential sources of (neural) error evidence, neural origins of the Pe, and its implications for the onset of awareness. That and much more in the paper!